Hypertension in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

The standard set

The ICHOM Standard Set for Hypertension in Low- and Middle-Income Countries is the result of hard work by a group of leading physicians, measurement experts and patients. It is our recommendation of the outcomes that matter most to patients with Hypertension in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. We urge all providers around the world to start measuring these outcomes to better understand how to improve the lives of their patients.

1 Recorded via the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire (BMQ [BMQ-Specific section]).

2 Includes physical activity (recommended to track via the International Physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ-Short Form]), medication adherence (recommended to track via the Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale - South Africa Version [Medication taking sub-scale]) and salt intake (recommended to track via the WHO STEPS Instrument).

3 Includes survival (overall and cardiovascular), blood pressure control, hypertensive urgencies and hypertensive emergencies, and erectile function (recommended to track via PROMIS single question).

4 Includes hospitalization, peripheral artery disease, hypertensive crisis, heart failure, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, and renal disease

5 Recommended to track via the EQ-5D.

Download the flyer

A brief overview of the most important outcomes for patients relating to this ICHOM Standard Set.

Reference Guide

A complete overview of the ICHOM Standard Set, including definitions for each measure and selected PROM instruments, time points for collection, and associated risk factors.

Data Dictionary

An index of the outcomes and case-mix variables included in the standard set, how to code them, and the information you need to collect when implementing the outcomes in practice.

Team that developed this standard


Vladislav Podpalov | Belarusian Hypertension Society, Vitebsk State Medical University


Otavio Berwanger | Hospital do Coração
Celso Amodeo | Brazilian Society of Cardiology


Anastase Dzudie Tamdja | Pan African Society of Cardiology, University of Yaounde


Norman Campbell | University of Calgary
Ernesto Schiffrin | McGill University, Jewish General Hospital


Peter Lamptey | London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, FHI 360


Raghupathy Anchala | Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad, Public Health Foundation of India


Yook-Chin Chia | University of Malaya, Institute for Healthcare Development at Sunway University, Malaysian Society of Hypertension


Albertino Damasceno | Eduardo Mondlane University


Manuela Fiuza | Universidade de Lisboa
António Vaz Carneiro | Universidade de Lisboa


Fareed Mirza | Novartis Foundation

United Kingdom

Dorothea Nitsch | London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

United States of America

Gbenga Ogedegbe | New York University Langone Medical Center


Nam Phuong Do Thi | Heart Institute of Ho Chi Minh City

*Two patient representatives from Mexico and Tanzania were also members of the Working Group.

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