Hypertension in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

The standard set

The ICHOM Standard Set for Hypertension in Low- and Middle-Income Countries is the result of hard work by a group of leading physicians, measurement experts and patients. It is our recommendation of the outcomes that matter most to patients with Hypertension in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. We urge all providers around the world to start measuring these outcomes to better understand how to improve the lives of their patients.

1 Recorded via the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire (BMQ [BMQ-Specific section]).

2 Includes physical activity (recommended to track via the International Physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ-Short Form]), medication adherence (recommended to track via the Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale - South Africa Version [Medication taking sub-scale]) and salt intake (recommended to track via the WHO STEPS Instrument).

3 Includes survival (overall and cardiovascular), blood pressure control, hypertensive urgencies and hypertensive emergencies, and erectile function (recommended to track via PROMIS single question).

4 Includes hospitalization, peripheral artery disease, hypertensive crisis, heart failure, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, and renal disease

5 Recommended to track via the EQ-5D.


Standard Set materials have moved to ICHOM Connect and are still available free of charge. Please log in or register to gain access to unlimited ICHOM resources at a single click of a button. There, you can also indicate your interest in receiving updates about and implementing the Standard Set.

Available materials:

  • Flyer – a brief overview of the most important outcomes for patients relating to this ICHOM Standard Set.
  • Reference Guide – a complete overview of the ICHOM Standard Set, including definitions for each measure and selected PROM instruments, time points for collection, and associated risk factors.
  • Data Dictionary – an index of the outcomes and case-mix variables included in the standard set, how to code them, and the information you need to collect when implementing the outcomes in practice.
  • Press Release
  • Published Articles
  • Additional materials

Team that developed this standard


Vladislav Podpalov | Belarusian Hypertension Society, Vitebsk State Medical University


Otavio Berwanger | Hospital do Coração
Celso Amodeo | Brazilian Society of Cardiology


Anastase Dzudie Tamdja | Pan African Society of Cardiology, University of Yaounde


Norman Campbell | University of Calgary
Ernesto Schiffrin | McGill University, Jewish General Hospital


Peter Lamptey | London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, FHI 360


Raghupathy Anchala | Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad, Public Health Foundation of India


Yook-Chin Chia | University of Malaya, Institute for Healthcare Development at Sunway University, Malaysian Society of Hypertension


Albertino Damasceno | Eduardo Mondlane University


Manuela Fiuza | Universidade de Lisboa
António Vaz Carneiro | Universidade de Lisboa


Fareed Mirza | Novartis Foundation

United Kingdom

Dorothea Nitsch | London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

United States of America

Gbenga Ogedegbe | New York University Langone Medical Center


Nam Phuong Do Thi | Heart Institute of Ho Chi Minh City

*Two patient representatives from Mexico and Tanzania were also members of the Working Group.

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